In a condensed version, the below article describes technical - mechanical procedures for establishing vegetation on problematic and severe sites and protecting them against erosion. The target of extreme site revegetation is the quick establishing of a dense, permanent vegetation suitable to the respective site in an area, which without adequate measures would remain without permanent vegetation for a long time. Several specialized seeding and bioengineering techniques are available for restoration and erosion control on such areas.
Sites without sufficiently dense and well-rooted vegetation are exposed to various forms of erosion (by water) and deflation (by wind). In extreme cases, entire slopes begin to slide and may bury roads and even buildings and residentials. At first, soil layers close to the surface benefit from the effects of revegetation, as the root system of the vegetation to be established effectively protects those layers against erosion. With slopes and acclivities, which - due to menacing landslides or a particular hydrological situation - need additional reinforcement including deeper soil layers, bioengineering techniques are applied. Those include the use of especially deep rooting plants (e.g. groves) and/or appropriate constructions with deeper penetration. In certain cases, even inanimate, but natural components may be used.
This ensures a lasting, dynamical and ecological reinforcement of especially sensitive and endangered sites.
The utilization of the restoration method, which for the respective site is the most effective, and the combination of methods complementing one another result in a multi-functionality which cannot be valuated enough: soil protection and erosion control, landscape aesthetics, ecology, nature conservation and environmental protection as well as leisure and local recreation similarly benefit from professional restoration.
The Major Tasks of Establishing Vegetation on Problematic Sites:
- establishing of a site-adapted and permanent vegetation cover
- erosion control
- soil amelioration
- optimization of the stability of the earth and landscape constructions
- reduction of ecological damage caused by interferences in nature and landscape
- integration of sites into the landscape
- linking and connection of ecosystems, creation of buffer areas and habitats for flora and fauna
- creation of recreational areas
Here, the Following Principle Applies:
For establishing vegetation on problematic sites with machines, it is important to select the respective adequate method and the required additives under consideration of the respective site conditions.
Prerequisites of successful revegetation are the knowledge and consideration of the given soil and site conditions
- soil type, organic matter, slope inclination, slope length, micro- and macro-climatic values
- hydrological situation (discharge behavior of precipitation water, spring and slope water)
- geological-pedological situation (utilization of topsoils as well as favorable soil properties)
- possibly already existing spontaneous vegetation
- seasonal factors
- adaptation of measures to site conditions